Weekly Report 4|85 8.27.22-9.2.22
A Politburo meeting chaired by Xi Jinping decided that the 7th Plenum of the 19th Central Committee should convene on 9 October and the 20th Party Congress should convene on 16 October. (See Senior Leaders section)
United Front Work Department Head You Quan (尤权) published an article in Qiushi on Xi Jinping’s speech at the July Central Conference on United Front Work, discussing the context, characteristics, and implementation of united front work in the “new era.” (See United Front Work section)
The Central Military Commission, Central Committee, and State Council issued “Opinions on Strengthening and Improving Population-Wide National Defense Education Work,” focused on civilian consciousness of national defense issues. (See Central Military Commission section)
Politburo Meeting Proposes 20th CCP National Congress Convene 16 October in Beijing
8.30 A Politburo meeting chaired by Xi Jinping decided that the 7th Plenum of the 19th Central Committee should convene on 9 October and the 20th Party Congress should convene on 16 October. The Politburo emphasized that the 20th Party Congress was important to the Chinese people’s “new journey of comprehensively establishing a modern socialist nation” taking place at a “critical moment” in the struggle to achieve the second centenary goal. The Congress will adhere to Marxist-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping’s theories, and selected concepts of Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao; “fully implement Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism With Chinese Characteristics for a New Era”; and summarize “new era” accomplishments and achievements of “the Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core” in uniting and leading the nation and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics. It will also “deeply analyze the international and domestic situation”; grasp the Party and state’s new requirements and the people’s new hopes; draw up action plans and general policy programs; mobilize the Party and people’s staunch “historical self-confidence” and strengthen their “historical initiative.” Furthermore, it will continue to advance the “five in one” (五位一体) approach and “four comprehensives” (四个全面) strategic arrangement, make solid progress in common prosperity for all, advance new projects in party-building, actively promote the construction of a community of shared destiny for all humankind (人类命运共同体), and the united struggle for the comprehensive establishment of a modern socialist nation and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation (中华民族伟大复兴). Finally, the Congress will elect a new Central Committee and Central Commission for Discipline Inspection. The Politburo said that preparatory work for the Congress has thus far progressed smoothly, and that it was necessary to continue implementing preparations well.
Xi Jinping: Implementing the New Development Concept in the New Development Phase Requires Constructing a New Development Pattern
8.31 Qiushi published the full text of a 29 October, 2020 speech by Xi Jinping at the Fifth Plenum of the 19th Central Committee on the “Proposals for the 14th Five-Year Plan on National Economic and Social Development and the Long-Range Objectives for 2035” (hereafter, “Proposals”) passed by the plenum. Xi stressed the importance of the Proposals for setting out a program for comprehensively establishing a modernized socialist nation, the second centenary goal, and China’s socioeconomic development in the next five years and over the long term. On behalf of the Politburo, Xi highlighted several “key issues for implementing the spirit of the plenum.”
“Correctly recognizing the international and domestic situation” amid the transition from the first to the second centenary goal and various complex domestic and international challenges. Resolving unequal or insufficient development should be done in a more systematic way, recognizing changes in the primary social contradictions (社会主要矛盾); in a more targeted way, recognizing “the people’s yearning for a better life”; and with more confidence, recognizing the fundamentally positive long-term economic trends. Xi said that China’s domestic economy was still in a “period of strategic opportunity,” but that it was important to understand how risks, opportunities, and challenges had changed in the past twenty years of this period, particularly in light of the pandemic.
“Fully grasping the new phase of development (新发展阶段).” Xi explained the historical significance of this new phase for the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, stressing the importance of the Communist Party and its leaders in the history of China’s modernization, economic development, and national strength. He then stated that the establishment of a moderately prosperous society (全面建成小康社会) and success of the anti-poverty campaign had created favorable conditions for establishing a modernized socialist nation. Xi then discussed the unique characteristics of Chinese modernization, namely that it concerns a large population, brings common prosperity, combines modernization of both material and spiritual civilization (物质文明和精神文明), harmoniously coexists with nature, and walks the “road of peaceful development” in modernization.
“Working to construct a new development pattern (新发展格局)” focused on domestic circulation and involving the mutually beneficial interaction of international-domestic “dual circulation” (双循环). Xi said that constructing this pattern would grant China an “opening move” (先手棋) for grasping the initiative of development, rather than a forced or stop-gap move; that it would open up dual circulation and not be a closed-off, solely domestic economic cycle; and that it would focus on domestic circulation on the foundation of a national unified market and not consist of small-scale local circulation. Xi stressed the need to be committed to the new development concept (新发展理念) in order to build the new development pattern.
“Grasping important points of focus for constructing the new development pattern.” Namely, cultivating and completing a system of domestic demand, accelerating self-reliance (自立自强) in science and technology, promoting optimization of the industry and supply chains, promoting agricultural and rural modernization, raising the people’s quality of life (生活品质), and “firmly grasping the bottom line of secure development.”
“Raising the ability and level of Party leadership’s implementation of the new development concept and construction of the new development pattern.” Xi stressed the importance of accurately implementing the Central Committee’s policies and improving Party-led mechanisms to ensure development progress. He particularly stressed the need for strategic thinking; the importance of the Party’s closeness with the people; the requirement for loyal, well-trained, and capable cadres; and the importance of risk-consciousness and prevention.
In conclusion, Xi warned that “a great power’s rise” would be no easy thing, and the Party must be prepared for a long, complex, and difficult struggle. Xi stressed making use of the United Front; gathering majorities and building alliances; not “attacking all sides” or engaging in “closed-door-ism”; persisting in the road of “peaceful development”; making use of multilateral mechanisms and using the international system to restrain unilateralism, protectionism, and hegemony; and doing external propaganda work well to establish China’s “image as a peacefully developing responsible great power” and win the broadest possible international understanding and support. He highlighted the importance of the Proposals and the role of public participation and public opinion in their successful implementation, the importance of accurate local implementation, and the need to strengthen mechanisms to ensure effective implementation and evaluation.
Guo Jiping (国纪平): China’s Development is a Great Undertaking in the Advancement of All Humanity
8.30 People’s Daily published a Guo Jiping (国纪平) commentary about Chinese-style modernization. The Article begins by stating Xi Jinping’s confidence that by the time of “New China’s” 100th anniversary, “the dream of national rejuvenation will definitely be realized.” It then stated that in China, the goal of building a “moderately prosperous society” (小康社会) has been achieved, and that the “new journey (新征程) of comprehensively building a modern socialist country has already begun.” The article then praised the achievements of Chinese-style modernization and asserted that there is no uniform model for modernization that can be applied to every country. It asserted that “China firmly and unswervingly walks its own path,” and that it will contribute more of “China’s wisdom (中国智慧), China’s programs (中国方案), and China’s power (中国力量)” to “solve the important problems that face humanity.” The Commentator Article then expounded on six achievements China has made related to modernization.
First, the Commentator Article stated that China had created a “new form of human civilization.” It stated that China has managed to abandon Western-style modernization with “capital at its center,” and instead chosen a path of modernization based on “common prosperity.” It argued that the success of Chinese-style modernization has “gone beyond the scope of any one country,” has “far-reaching global importance,” and has “totally redrawn the world map of modernization.” The article then praised China’s economic achievements, noting that China’s GDP has reached a value of RMB 111.4 trillion and that it accounts for 18 percent of the world’s economy. It noted that China has an urbanization rate of over 60 percent, has managed to enact the world’s “biggest social security system,” and has achieved goals related to poverty alleviation set by the United Nations 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development ten years ahead of schedule. The article criticized the attitude that “modernization is Westernization” (现代化就是西方化), and stated that various financial crises, serious economic decline, and political polarization are issues that exemplify how Western countries that once led the world in modernization are now the ones facing difficult problems related to development and governance. The Article then stated that countries in the process of development should thus “independently explore their own paths of modernization.”
Second, the Commentator Article extolled several achievements related to improvements in the daily lives of Chinese citizens in areas such as education, life expectancy, and income. The Article stated that by 2035, tangible progress will have been made towards common prosperity for all citizens, and that “equality in basic public service provision will have been realized.” By mid-century, “the entire nation will have realized basic common prosperity” and income and consumption gaps will have been reduced to a “reasonable range” (合理区间). The Article then emphasized the importance of constructing an “ecological civilization” (生态文明), noting that “adhering to the [principle of] harmonious coexistence between people and nature has become a fundamental component of developing socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era.” The Article notes that Xi Jinping has personally promoted plans to preserve forests and plant more trees in Inner Mongolia, and sought to promote China’s ambitions in green development (绿色发展) on the international stage. It then praised China’s achievements in global climate governance and goals for reducing emissions.
Third, the Commentator Article praised China’s achievements as they pertain to democracy. The Article asserted that several Western countries believe they have a “patent” (专利) on democracy. They frequently use “democracy” as an excuse to “point fingers” (指手画脚) towards other countries or “interfere” (干涉) in their affairs. The Article asserted that China’s democratic processes have demonstrated “exuberant vitality” (勃勃生机) and have enabled 1.4 billion Chinese citizens to “become masters of [their] own house” (当家作主). It argued that this proves there are many methods to realize democracy, and that developing countries should independently explore such methods. The Article asserted that China is respectful of differences in value systems between disparate countries. Fourth, the commentary emphasized the importance of adhering to a long-term strategy for development. It cited plans to achieve socialist modernization by 2035 at the 19th Party Congress and in the 14th Five-Year Plan as examples of the “strategic vision” of China’s leaders, particularly praising Xi Jinping’s contributions to modernization. Furthermore, the article noted that for the past ten years, “China’s development has met many risks and challenges that have been turbulent, at times also stormy.” It asserted that only with a “fighting spirit” (斗争精神) and the “spirit to struggle” (敢于斗争) can they “continuously push Chinese-style modernization forward.” It then referenced leadership’s determination in a people’s war (人民战争) against the epidemic, and stated that the “international community has gained a deeper recognition of the historical inevitability that is China’s realization of national rejuvenation.” Fifth, the article emphasized the importance of peaceful development, noting relevant concepts and proposals from Xi Jinping like a “community of shared future for humankind” (人类命运共同体), the Belt and Road Initiative (一带一路), Global Development Concept (全球发展倡议), and Global Security Initiative (全球安全倡议), which is based on the idea of “common, comprehensive, cooperative, and sustainable security.”
Sixth, the Commentator Article emphasized the importance of adhering to strong Party leadership. It cited a Harvard University poll that demonstrated that the Party enjoys an approval rating upwards of 90 percent, in addition to a report published by Edelman, a public relations company, that stated that public trust in the government stands at 91 percent. The Article stressed the importance of such robust public trust in the Party, and also praised the Party’s “extremely strong leadership” that has enabled the overcoming of various challenges. It also noted that increasing numbers of foreign delegations have traveled to China to conduct research on the Party. For example, it noted that in September 2020, more than 200 leaders from 70 different political parties in 16 Latin American countries watched a live-broadcast of a local county meeting on poverty alleviation. Lastly, the Commentator Article emphasized that 2022 constitutes a special year, emphasizing the upcoming 20th Party Congress that will “focus on the deployment of strategic tasks and important initiatives for the next five years.”
Promote the Creation of A New National Defense Education Work Pattern for All Citizens
9.2 PLA Daily published a Commentator Article on the recently released “Opinions on Strengthening and Improving Population-Wide (全民) National Defense Education Work” (referred henceforth as Opinions, see Central Military Commission section). The Commentator Article stated that “strengthening national defense education and ideas regarding national defense for all citizens is an important strategic issue highly prioritized by the Party and country.” The Article stated that since the 18th Party Congress, Xi Jinping has greatly prioritized work in national defense education, noting that he has “pushed reforms to the leadership system of national defense education for all citizens in the new era.” Furthermore, Xi has established Martyr’s Day (烈士纪念日) and National Memorial Day (国家公祭日). The Article stated that the world has become increasingly turbulent and more prone to change, meaning that the “country’s security situation has become increasingly unstable and uncertain.” The Article noted that “great-power games have intensified,” and that the “struggle against anti-secessionist activity has become increasingly severe and complicated.” It also notes increasingly prominent issues related to maritime disputes and the “increased likelihood of chaos on our doorstep,” thus making the task of “defending the country’s political security and social stability more formidable.” In “promoting the peaceful unification of the motherland, protecting the country’s sovereignty, safety, and development interests,” national defense education has a “glorious task” with an “important meaning.” The Article also emphasized the importance of studying the Opinions from a “strategic and comprehensive perspective.” The Article further emphasized that it was necessary to, in accordance with the Opinions, launch open activity at military barracks, support the launch of national defense education in appropriate areas, and actively provide the necessary training grounds, facilities, and equipment for such activity. Military academies (军队院校) and training institutions (训练机构) should launch special training on national defense education and assist in improving national defense literacy (国防素养) for all citizens. Military districts (军区) of each province should coordinate the launch of national defense education for all citizens together with military garrisons (驻军部队) and launch various military experiences and educational activities as well. The Article further promoted the opening of military venues (军事场馆) to general society and stated the importance of working hard to create a strong atmosphere for national defense education. It proceeded to highlight that “protecting national defense” should become a “consensus in thought among society,” and that it is necessary to realize “China’s dream of a strong military.”
United Front Work
You Quan: A Basic Guide for the Undertaking of United Front Work in the New Era
9.1 United Front Work Department Head You Quan (尤权) published an article in Qiushi on Xi Jinping’s speech at the July Central Conference on United Front Work. You first stressed the importance of studying Xi Jinping’s “important thought” on the Party’s united front work. This includes studying its theoretical origins, especially in theoretical innovations on modern united front work since the 18th Party Congress while including traditional Chinese ideals of unity and diversity. You also called for studying its practical foundations, including the Party’s leadership and long-term policy goals, ensuring that “the resolution of ethnic issues with Chinese characteristics proceeds in the correct direction,” and making progress in other topics of united front work including ethnic work, religion, non-Party intellectuals, private businesses, and work with Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora. He stressed study and implementation of the “core essentials” of the speech, particularly taking the concept of the “twelve musts” (十二个必须, Xi’s directives for united front work, eg. using the United Front as a “magic weapon” and strengthening the Party’s leadership of united front work) as the requirements of future united front work. You then discussed how to understand the current “historical position” of the United Front as evaluated by Xi Jinping, so as to understand the importance of developing united front work for the new era and strengthen a sense of mission and responsibility for this work. He highlighted distinct characteristics of the United Front in the new era, saying that it is in a period of historical transition related to the transition between centenary goals; that it faces many risks and challenges like foreign pressure and interference in the name of human rights as well as domestic subversive or separatist activities; that it “revolves around the [Party as a] core, serves the [national] big picture,” and works for the goal of national rejuvenation; and that it must more urgently pursue “differentiation of structure, diversification of thought, and consolidation of a shared ideological and political foundation.”
Next, You noted five points related to promoting the implementation of decisions made by the Party Central Committee. You noted that Xi Jinping has previously pointed out the importance of “strengthening the Party’s comprehensive leadership over United Front work.” You stated that it is important to “give full play” to the United Front’s “important uses,” including in “advising, organization, coordination, and supervision” to create “working synergy.” You emphasized the importance of United Front work that takes place at the grassroots level, mainly that involving “ethnic minorities, religious circles, private economic entities, and new social classes.” The Article also stressed the importance of integrating “grassroots party building” (基层党建) into United Front work. Second, You emphasized the importance of “properly handling” the relationships between relevant contradictory concepts: defending core principles while also expanding the circle of consensus, recognizing both visible and latent issues when laying the foundation for long-term political achievements, combining a principled approach to policy with flexibility in its implementation, and the relationship between “unity and struggle.” Third, You emphasized that it is important to “pinpoint work areas for the United Front.” This includes improvements in work related to Xinjiang, Tibet, ethnicity, and religion, work related to democratic and non-partisan parties (无党派), “non-Party intellectuals” (党外知识分子), and overseas United Front activities as they pertain to “winning hearts and minds” and “developing patriotic forces” in Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan. You further emphasized the importance of “internet-based United Front work,” and stressed that the internet can be used to “spur positive energy to protect ideological security.” Fourth, You stated that it is important both to prevent and deal with major risks associated with United Front work. The Article stated that effective risk management is an important aspect of the United Front’s use as a “magic weapon” (法宝), and emphasized that it is necessary to adhere to “bottom-line thinking, firmly establish the overall national security outlook (总体国家安全观), and deeply investigate the important work areas and potential risks” associated with various areas of United Front work. It is important to “on one hand, grasp leadership in political thought” and “on the other hand, grasp preventive [measures against] damage caused by infiltration.” You maintained that it is also critical to prevent “local risks from becoming global risks, economic and societal risks from becoming political risks, and international risks intruding and becoming domestic risks.” He further stated that it is necessary to prevent “black swan” (黑天鹅) and “gray rhino” (灰犀牛) incidents. Fifth, You stated that the construction of the “two teams” (两支队伍) system (coordination between the United Front and non-Party groups) should be strengthened. He stated the importance of developing high-quality representative teams from outside the Party and teams of United Front cadres. It is also important to “bolster political education and external affairs training, concentrate on elevating political judgment, political perception, and political administration.” Lastly, You emphasized the importance of “welcoming the 20th Party Congress with practical actions.”
“Tangshan Restaurant Assault Incident”: Hebei Strictly Investigates Corruption and the “Protective Umbrella” Problem Behind [Main Suspect] Chen and Other Suspected Criminal Forces
8.29 Hebei province’s Commission for Discipline Inspection and Supervisory Commission (CDI-SC) announced that it was “strictly investigating and handling” official corruption in relation to a 10 June viral incident of a group “picking quarrels and provoking trouble (寻衅滋事), violently assaulting others” at a restaurant in Tangshan (唐山). After noting the provincial Party committee, government, and Public Security Bureau’s quick handling of the case and punishment of those responsible, Xinhua noted that the province’s public security office had taken charge of the case, arranged for the nearby city of Langfang (廊坊) to run the investigation, and sent specialists to supervise and direct local public security organs’ work. Hebei and several local cities’ CDI-SC organs investigated fifteen “relevant persons” in the Tangshan government and police, and imposed custodial measures against eight police and public security officers suspected of abusing their authority, circumventing the law for personal interest, giving or accepting bribes, and other violations of discipline. The arrest of suspects in the attack was announced the same day.
Central Military Commission
Central Military Commission, Central Committee, and State Council Issue “Opinions on Strengthening and Improving Population-Wide National Defense Education Work”
9.1 The Central Military Commission, Central Committee, and State Council issued “Opinions on Strengthening and Improving Population-Wide (全民) National Defense Education Work” (hereafter “Opinions”), focused on civilian consciousness of national defense issues. The Opinions stressed the importance of such education, referring to it as an important component of cementing the foundations for a strong military and of the Party’s ideological work which fosters patriotism and strengthens public consciousness of national defense. After noting the Central Committee’s attention to relevant propaganda, education, and activities, they stressed the importance of such programs for goals including “promoting the peaceful reunification of the motherland” and realizing the centenary goal for military construction. The Opinions required such education to be led by the Party and follow Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, including ‘strengthening the ‘four consciousnesses’ (四个意识), consolidating the ‘four confidences’ (四个自信), [and] achieving the ‘two defends’ (两个维护).” It should use a holistic view of national security and foster core socialist values. Such education should also strengthen the people’s ideals of love for the country, Party, and socialism; their sense of urgency amid peacetime; and their reverence for the military, ultimately promoting public consensus on and conscious action for national defense. The Opinions further specified that this education should follow relevant guidance from Xi Jinping; incorporate varied aspects of national defense such as theory, history, laws, and technology; and raise the masses’ consciousness and understanding of national defense. This education should be strengthened for leading cadres; expanded to include leaders of enterprises and institutions, all schools, and media institutions; and be incorporated into youth curricula, high school and college tests, and evaluations of school performance. The Opinions encouraged all provincial-level jurisdictions to establish centers for public education on national defense and call for widespread public educational activities such as lectures for students and screenings of defense-themed films. They called for stronger “speech and propaganda guidance,” using this education as a major theme in propaganda, making said propaganda more appealing, encouraging artists to create work on relevant themes, promoting model contributors to national defense, and incorporating Internet media. The Opinions then discussed the importance of promoting advanced technology, civil-military cooperation, and administrative arrangements for the education program.
Comprehensively Deepening Reform
National Development and Reform Commission: Accelerate the Construction of a New Development Pattern, Firmly Grasp the Development Initiative
9.1 The National Development and Reform Commission published an article in Qiushi calling for the construction of a new development pattern and grasping the development initiative as a path towards China’s economic modernization. The article highlighted three core steps to do so: First, the article called for accelerating the construction of a new development pattern to “consciously grasp” China’s objective economic laws and development trends, which included expanding domestic economic demand for products to reduce reliance on imports, exports, and international supply chains; reducing the impact of shocks from the international market; and remedying unbalanced and insufficient development across China. The article states that only through accelerating the construction of a new development pattern can China “increase its attractiveness to global resources and influence on global industrial, supply, and innovation chains so that scale and agglomeration effects can be brought into play.” Second, the article emphasized strengthening strategic planning, “mastering the key principles from above” (操其要于上), and “assigning specific matters to those below” (分其详于下) to “grasp the focus of the work.” The article highlighted the importance of national scientific and technological initiatives as part of this step, the need to balance supply and demand through policies like promoting “effective investment in important projects,” continued reform and opening such as through the promotion ofBelt and Road Initiative goals, and paying close attention to development security issues such as energy supply and pandemic prevention. Third, the article called for accelerating the promotion of “various strategic tasks” to build a new development pattern. These tasks included accelerating scientific and technological self-reliance, strengthening the main role of enterprises in innovation, accelerating the transformation of scientific and technological innovation achievements into “real productivity,” and accelerating the improvement of the people’s quality of life.
International Liaison Work
8.26-29 CCP International Department (CCP/ID) Head Liu Jianchao (刘建超) traveled to the Philippines on 26 August and met with the Philippine Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Enrique Manalo. On 27 August, Liu met with Lakas–CMD President and Philippine Speaker of the House of Representatives Martin Romualdez. On 28 August, he met several representatives of mainstream Philippine media, including from the Philippine News Agency, Philippine Star, Manila Times, and CNN Philippines TV; met with Philippine Senate Minority Leader Koko Pimentel; and held a discussion with various Chinese associations in the Philippines. On 29 August, he met with Senior Deputy Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives, former Philippine President, and President Emeritus of Lakas–Christian Muslim Democrats (Lakas–CMD) Gloria Macapagal Arroyo and Philippine Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Chair Imee Marcos.
8.30 CCP/ID Deputy Head Qian Hongshan (钱洪山) met with Secretary of the Central Committee of the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova Constantin Staris.
8.30-31 CCP/ID Head Liu Jianchao next traveled to Indonesia. On 30 August, he met with General Secretary of the Great Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindra) and Defense Minister Prabowo Subianto; Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P) Chair and former Vice President Megawati Sukarnoputri; and President Joko Widido. On 31 August, Liu met with Foreign Minister Retno Marsudi and Golkar Party Chair and Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs Airlangga Hartarto.
8.30 CCP/ID Deputy Head Shen Beili (沈蓓莉) attended the China-Nigeria Business Dialogue, held through video conference. PRC Ambassador to Nigeria Cui Jianchun (崔建春), National Secretary of the All Progressives Congress (APC) and Senator Iyiola Omisore, and Minister of Industry, Trade and Investment of Nigeria Otunba Adeniyi Adebayo also attended.
9.1 Qian Hongshan held a video meeting with co-chair of the “A Just Russia — For Truth” (SRZP) Party and deputy chair of the State Duma Committee on International Affairs Alexey Chepa and the party’s international affairs representative, Alexander Romanovich.
9.2 CCP/ID Assistant Head Li Mingxiang (李明祥) spoke at the opening meeting of a seminar with the All Progressives Congress (APC) of Nigeria, alongside co-host and party vice-secretary Festus Fuanter. PRC Ambassador to Nigeria Cui Jianchun attended the meeting.
9.2 Cao Xuetao (曹雪涛) was appointed Deputy Head of the National Health Commission.